A IS FOR AGRICULTURE, ARCHAEOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE, & ART
In the 1920s and 1930s the first field work at Zhoukoudian in Beijing and Yinxu in Henan Province heralded the beginnings of ARCHAEOLOGY in China. The first known species of Homo Erectus, the Peking Man, was found during excavations at Zhoukoudian. The Mausoleum of the First Quin Emperor houses the Terracotta Army. The ruins of Yinis the source of the discovery of oracle bones and oracle bone script, which resulted in the recognition of the earliest known Chinese writing.
ARCHITECTURE in China has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries and has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. As early as 8,000 years ago, the Chinese had begun constructing wooden structures above ground. Ancient architecture includes the Great Wall, the White Horse Temple, the Mogao Caves, the Summer Palace, and the Forbidden City. The Chinese pavilion is built of wood, stone or bamboo in any of a variety of shapes. The houses of commoners, bureaucrats, merchants and farmers tend to follow a set pattern. In ancient Chinese writings, the Chinese word for palace, gong, referred to a simple house but after the founding of the Qin Dynasty (211-206 B.C.), gong gradually became known as where emperor lived and worked. Certain architectural features were reserved solely for buildings built for the Emperor of China. The Buddhist architecture follows the imperial style. The use of open courtyards is a common feature in many types of Chinese architectures. The Sunrise Kempinski Hotel in Beijing is an amazing modern architectural wonder. In 2016 China added 84 skscrapers setting a record for the country. The Canton Tower is the second tallest tower and the fourth-tallest freestanding structure in the world.
ART in China takes many forms. Chinese Painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. The tradition of calligraphy in East Asia originated and developed in China. Chinese ceramics show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art and ceramics globally. Chinese Jade refers to the jade mined or carved in China from the Neolithic onward and is the primary hardstone of Chinese sculpture. The country has many sculptures. Chinese Ritual Bronzes are the most impressive surviving objects from the Chinese Bronze Age.
China has over 1,000 species of BIRDS and more than 50 are endemic. Bird Watching is popular. Suggestions for the National Bird include the Blue-eared Pheasant and Red-crowned Crane. Some birds are endangered and protected. The Red Ibis is one of the most endangered bird in the world. Cranes and the Chinese Phoenix are important in Chinese mythology.
China has many BRIDGES including covered bridges and footbridges. Two footbridges are being built that will let monkeys cross from mountain to mountain in China's Henan province The oldest bridge still in existence in China is the Anji Bridge, constructed during the years between 595 and 605. Suspension Bridges were invented in China. The Grand Canal in China is the oldest and longest canal in the world with 24 locks and around 60 bridges. The longest glass bridge in the world is in Shiniuzhai Geopark in Hunan. The Lucky Knot Bridge in Changsha is a pedestrian bridge. It connects multiple levels at different heights with the final shape resulting im 'knotting' all these routes together. The Long River Bridge near Baoshan, Yunnan, is one of the longest ever built and one of the highest in the world. The glass-bottomed Coiling Dragon Cliff Skywalk is on the cliff side of Tianmen Mountain.
China has all forms of COMMUNICATION including newspapers, magazine, radio, and television. The telephone code is 86. The country has WiFi, Internet, and Cell Phone Service . Many Webcams are located throughout the country.
China CURRENCY has two names. The Yuan and the Renminbi which is the official currency of the People's Republic of China. The history of Chinese currency spans more than 3000 years. Currency of some type has been used in China since the Neolithic age. The first Paper Bills were used by the Chinese during the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907). Hong Kong is one of the 3 most important financial centers in the world.
Many DINOSAURS have been discovered in China. Paleontologist Xu Xing has discovered so many dinosaurs he has lost count. In 2015, construction workers unearthed 43 fossilized dinosaur eggs during road repair work in Heyuan city. The city has been officially titled as the "Hometown of the Dinosaur in China" due to the thousands of dinosaur egg fossils that have been unearthed in its vicinity. Also in 2015 the fossilized skeletons of 2 long-necked dinosaurs were unearthed by workers building a road in China and thought to be the remains of Lufengosaurs magnus and Lufengosaurus huenei – herbivores which roamed the Earth around 180 million years ago. Yet again in 2015, an ancient feathered creature dug up in northeastern China is the largest winged dinosaur ever found. In 2016, a new species of bird–like dinosaur was discovered at a construction site in Southern China. Dubbed Tongtianlong limosus, the winged creature had died after becoming mired in mud about 66–72 million years ago– hence it’s nickname, the ‘Mud Dragon.’ In 2017 a new feathered dinosaur was discovered. The Tianyu Museum of Nature is the biggest dinosaur museum in the world and has a nearly complete fossil skeleton of the Sinosauropteryx dinosaur as well as large fossils such as those of a Brachiosaurus and a Hadrosaurus. The Dinosaurs Park also called China Dinosaurs Land is a theme park located in Changzhou, Jiangsu is a theme park about dinosaurs.
EDUCATION in China is a state-run system run by the Ministry of Education. All citizens must attend school for at least 9 years which the government funds. It includes 6 years of primary education, starting at age 6 or 7, and 3 years of junior secondary education for ages 12 to 15. After middle school, there are 3 years of high school. The country has many private schools and home schooling is becoming popular.
Many annual EVENTS are held in China. Several Festivals are held throughout the year. China uses colors symbolically within every ritual, ceremony, and festival. The Boat Festival has been held annually for more than 2,000 years and commemorates the poet Qu Yuan. The country has many "must see" attractions.
The FLAG of China was officially adopted on October 1, 1949. It features 1 large star, with smaller stars in a semicircle farthest from the flag pole. The red symbolizes the communist revolution and it's also the traditional color of the people. The large gold star represents communism, while the four smaller stars represent the social classes of the people. The country has a variety of other flags. The National Emblem of China contains in a red circle a representation of Tiananmen Gate. Above this are the 5 stars found on the national flag. The outer border of the red circle shows sheaves of wheat and the inner sheaves of rice, which together represent agricultural workers. At the center of the bottom portion of the border is a cog-wheel that represents industrial workers. The National Anthem of China is March of the Volunteers.
The FOOD Timeline of China dates back 1 million years. Soybeans were cultivated as early as B.C. 3,000 and Soy Sauce originated in the country. Completion of the Grand Canal in 605 allowed shipment of food from the south to the north. Chopsticks were invented in ancient China. The country has many Food Exhibitions. China has a variety of Food including rice, noodles, and tofu. Fortune cookies are not a Chinese custom and it is debatable where they originated.
China has had many FORTS. The Diaoyu Fortress has been designated a major national cultural and historic site by China's State Council. Taku Forts were located by the Hai River estuary. Most of the forts were dismantled when the Eight-Nation Alliance Forces invaded China during the Boxer rebellion (1899–1901). Two forts remain today, one on the southern bank and the other on the northern bank of the Hai River. Dagu Fort was repaired in 1988 and opened to the public in June 1997. Miran Fort has 8 stupas, 3 temple sites, 2 beacons, dwellings, tombs, a kiln area and a smelting site. In 1979, Tung Chung Fort was declared a monument and was refurbished in 1988.
China has the opposite of GHOST TOWNS. It has new cities that have yet to come to life called ghost cities. The city of Ordos in Inner Mongolia is called The World's Largest Ghost City". The country has many haunted places. A mansion in Beijing known as Chaonei No. 81 was once a church, then a home but lies in decay because it's probably haunted and no one wants to go near it.
The GLOBAL Position of China is approximately 35 degrees latitude north and 104 degrees longitude west. The country is located on the western shore of the Pacific Ocean and on the eastern part of the continent of Asia, the 3rd largest continent by area in the world. China is bordered by many countries and and is the 3rd largest country in the world. There is a monument marking the geographic center in Gansu Provence. The highest point is Mount Everest and the lowest point is Ayding Lake. Geocaching is a high-tech sport using a Global Positioning Finder and the country has many Geocaches.
The HISTORY of China dates back to Peking Man roughly 750,000 years ago. Written records of the history of China can be found from as early as 1500 BC. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (ca. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (before 296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC), which had no system of writing on a durable medium. The Yellow River Civilization is said to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. Much of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy further developed during the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC). The kingdom eventually broke apart into smaller states. The last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912). In 1912, the Xinhai Revolution changed China from a monarchy to the Republic of China. In 1949 the People's Republic of China was founded.
China celebrates many Traditional HOLIDAYS and several public holidays. October 1 is National Day celebrated in honor of the founding of the People's Republic of China. The Chinese New Year is the oldest and most important holiday and includes fireworks, parades, and ceremonies that can last anywhere from a week to a month depending on the individual and regional customs.
China has a variety of INSECTS including many butterflies and moths. In general Chinese lore, Cicadas are creatures of high status and are consumed in China. The country has many species of spiders but only a few are poisonous
China has thousands of ISLANDS. The largest Island is Taiwanone of the most densely populated countries in the world. Hong Kong is an autonomous territory on the southern coast of China and is known for its skyline and deep natural harbor. It is the world's number one tourist destination city. China has at least 7 artificial islands. One artificial island built on Fiery Cross Reef is now the site of a military barracks, lookout tower and a runway long enough to handle Chinese military aircraft. Hong Kong International Airport is located on the island of Chek Lap Kok, which largely comprises land reclaimed for the construction of the airport.
JAZZ is popular in China. The OCT-LOFT jazz festival in Shenzhen is one of the biggest in the country. Jazz Clubs are located in many places in China. Opera is popular. There are numerous regional branches of Chinese opera and the Peking opera is one of the most notable. The Harpin Opera House features a grand theater that can host over 1,600 patrons and a smaller theater to accommodate an intimate audience of 400. Square Dancing is popular.
The JUDICIAL branch is one of 3 branches of government in the People's Republic of China, along with the executive and legislative branches. The Chinese courts are divided into a four-level court system: Supreme People's Court - Local people's courts - Courts of Special Jurisdiction - Maritime Court of China. Hong Kong and Macau have separate court systems due to their historical status as British and Portuguese colonies. Chinese law is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world. Traditional Chinese Law refers to the laws, regulations, and rules used in China up to 1911, when the last imperial dynasty fell.
Many aspects of life in China focus on KIDS. There are fun and safe destinations full of interesting and child-friendly activities. More things to do with kids in China. A day in the life of Chinese students. There are many Traditional Chinese games. Information about a century of Chinese Toys. The oldest known toys—clay animals found by archaeologists—are from 6,000 or 7,000 years ago. There is an International Trade Fair For Toys & Preschool Educational Resources.
Many different LANGUAGES are spoken in China. Standard Chinese, a form of Mandarin Chinese, is the official national spoken language for the mainland and serves as a lingua franca within the Mandarin-speaking regions. The country has the longest continuously used written language in the world.
The first LIBRARIES in China came into being during the time of the Shang dynasty. The National Library is in Beijing. It is the largest library in Asia and one of the largest in the world. The country has many provincial libraries. Li Bai is the Chinese Poet Laureate. Chinese literature extends back thousands of years.
China has many of LIGHTHOUSES. The Mulantou Lighthouse is the 5th tallest lighthouse in the world and the tallest in China. Eluanbi Lighthouse is open to the public year round. China has a lighthouse on a man-made island on the south China Sea. A lighthouse is an important aspect to the mariner.
China has many MOUNTAINS and mountain ranges. Some are scenic and magnificent and some are related to religion and culture. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain and the summit marks the boarder between China and Nepal. It is also one of the highest mountain in the world. Mountain climbing is a popular activity. The highest mountain ranges in China are the home of one of the most elusive and mysterious monkey species in the world - the Chinese Golden Monkey.
China has over 3,000 MUSEUMS. Some are state-owned and some are private. The National Museum is in Beijing. Some museums of cultural relics, such as the Museum of Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses in Xi'an, have become internationally known tourist attractions. The Henan Museum is one of the oldest and largest museums in China. The government has exchanges of cultural relics exhibitions between museums and promotes the display and exchanges of legal non-governmental collections.
China has the largest POPULATION in the world with over 1.3 billion people. Shanghai is the most populated city famous people have called China the their home including Su Song who built the first mechanical clock and Zhang Heng who invented the first instrument for monitoring earthquakes. Other Chinese invented many things including paper, the compass, gunpowder, ice cream, kites, and printing. In 2003, China became the 3rd country to successfully send a person into space - Yang Liwei.
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China has been a multi-RELIGION country since the ancient times. Freedom of belief is a government policy, and normal religious activities are protected by the constitution. Buddhism spread from India to China some 2,000 years ago. Taoism is native to China and has a history of more than 1,700 years. It is the most widespread religion in the country. Islam spread from the Arab Countries to China more than 1,300 years ago. Christianity is one of the 3 big world religions to come to China from the west.
China has over 400 species of REPTILES. Some of the reptiles are unique. The Yangtze Alligator is one of 2 known living species of Alligator. This critically endangered species is endemic to eastern China. The Asian Giant Soft-Shelled Turtle is a species of freshwater turtle and the largest extant freshwater turtle in the world. The turtle spends 95% of its life buried and motionless, with only its eyes and mouth protruding from the sand. The Burmese Python is one of the 5 largest species of snakes in the world. The Green Sea Turtle, like other sea turtles, migrates long distances between feeding grounds and hatching beaches. amphibians are endangered and protected.
China has all forms of TRANSPORTATION. The Pudong Airport is is the largest airport in China. Beijing is a major hub for the national highway, expressway, railway, and high-speed rail networks. The Beijing Capital International Airport is the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic. China issues Vehicle Registration Platesat its Vehicle Management Offices, under the administration of the Ministry of Public Security. Hong Kong and Macau have their own administrations on licence plates. Vehicles from Hong Kong and Macau are required to apply for licence plates, usually from Guangdong, to travel on roads in Mainland China. Vehicles from Mainland China have to apply for Hong Kong or Macau licence plates to enter those territories.
China has many species of TREES. Some trees in China are of economic importanceand some species are only found in China. The Ginkgo is the oldest tree in the world and first appeared during the Jurassic era. The metasequoia is also one of the oldest and rarest tree in the world dating back to the Mesozoic era. The Taiwan fir is exclusively native to the island of Taiwan. The dove-tree is best known for its flowers. The Eucommia is widely cultivated in China for its bark and is highly valued in herbology such as Traditional Chinese medicine. The Plum Blossom is the National Flower of China. It was chosen because it's a very resilient flower, which doesn't die easily and flowers for many many years. There is one plum blossom tree in central China, which is 1,600 years old - and it still flowers every year!
China has many UNIVERSITIES and colleges. Peking University is the first modern national university established in China. It was founded as the Imperial University of Peking in 1898 as a replacement for the ancient Imperial Academies - Taixue and Guozijian. Tianjin University celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1995. There are many Medical schools. Some colleges offer studies in Traditional Chinese Medicine.
China has both active and extinct VOLCANOES. One of the largest eruptions in the world during the past 10,000 years took place at Baitoushan volcano in the 11th century AD. Over 70 volcanic cones form the Kunlun Volcanic Group and are responsible for the most recent eruption. They are not, however, volcanic mountains, but cones. These volcanic cones form the highest active volcanic formation in the northern hemisphere.
The WEATHER in China spans many degrees of latitude with complicated terrain. The country has 5 temperature zones - Cold-Temperate, Mid-Temperate, Warm-Temperate, Subtropical, and Tropical Zone. Based on precipitation, the area divides into 4 parts: wet, semi-wet, semi-dry, and dry . China experiences monsoons and typhoons, and an occassional tornado . It also has floods, tsunamis, and droughts. In June 2017 a landslide caused by torrential rain occurred in south-western China.
China has a variety of WILDLIFE. There are several species of Big Cats in China. Tigers originated in China about two million years ago. The Canidae family has several members in China. Foxes and raccoon dogs are farmed for their fur. The Giant Panda is considered a national treasure and is an endangered species protected by state law. Since the 1970s, Giant Pandas have been given or lent to foreign zoos as gesture of diplomatic goodwill. Other more common bears in China include the Asian black bear and the Brown Bear. The Civet family of small furry mammals feed on fruits, insects and rodents. China has over 100 species of bats and play a part in Chinese Culture. The largest family of carnivorous mammals found in China includes several species. The country has several species of monkeys. The most commonly found are Macaques. The Snub-nosed Money is endemic to a small area in temperate, mountainous forests of central and Southwest China. Some species of wildlife are endangered and protected. The country has 5 deadly animals